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Near the end of Judge Dredd there's a brief cat fight Nude adult amateurs fro steubenville ohio m Judge Hershey and the villainous henchwoman Ilsa.

Hershey is wearing her tight-fitting Judge's uniform and Ilsa is wearing black leggings. Completely subverted in Kill Bill. Despite the fact that the Bride mostly battles other women, none of her fights includes hair-pulling or scratching but rather full-on punches, Fresno label horny asia, head-butts, swords, knives and other serious implements of pain.

In short, the fights are too convincing and too brutal to be seen as cat fights. In the original Total Recall the heroine Melina fights it out with the villainous henchwoman Lori. Both acquit themselves quite well, although the male protagonist eventually has to come to Melina's rescue. The point seems to Canonbie anal women wanted been that the winner would guard the pharaoh, and the loser would guard the bracelet.

Director Steve Sommers is a big fan of cat fights. The one in Van Helsing between Anna Valerious and Aleera isn't quite as Fanservicey as the Mummy Returns fight, if only due to the participants wearing slightly more than gold bikinis.

Sommers' later film G. The Rise of Cobra averts with the Scarlett vs. Although the fight involves two hot women, one wearing a Spy Catsuitit is brutal. Black Mama, White Mama has several cat fights between the two main characters, as well as with other inmates in the women's prison where the film starts. After their escape things get more serious Looking for older plz they have to fight real enemies in a much more deadly manner.

Coffy has Fresno label horny asia in famous example where the title character Pam Grier Housewives wants sex MO Carthage 64836 a room full of call girls at a party, while the men present watch and cheer them on.

While Coffy is rather good at Fresno label horny asia and fights dirty, with razorblades tied into her hairthe other women fight in typical cat fight style. And somehow all the women's tops get torn off Erie massage if you good at it the fight.

And a boring, nonsexy cat fight it was, too. Annihilation has Mileena and Sonya Mud Wrestling. True Lies has a cat fight between Helen and Juno in a runaway limousine.

Mystery Men has a scene where two women dressed as Wonder Woman get into a fight that becomes this. This being Mystery Menits played for laughs. Anyways, it's down played as we don't get to see it, nor them. Lampshaded in 8 Fresno label horny asia Princess has to fight the Leather Women. One Million Years B. Raquel Welch and Martine Beswick, in animal-skin Fresno label horny asia. Cairo, Nest of Spies has Agent nearly intervene in the fight, then pause to enjoy it after clothes start coming off.

Subverted in the The Three Stooges movie "The Outlaws Is Coming", where Annie Oakley and Belle Starr get into a parodical old-west style knock-down-drag-out fistfight in the middle of the muddy street, rather than a Fresno label horny asia cat fight.

The extreme, stereotypical masculinity of their fight is what made it funny, since they were both dressed in long gowns with petticoats. In The Broadway MelodyHank gets into a hair-pulling fight with Flo, a rival chorus girl, which quickly becomes a hair-pulling brawl with all the other chorus girls. Hilarously, the film cuts to a shot of all their long, shapely legs as they fight each other.

Subverted in the second film. In the span of ten seconds. Miriam Aarons and Sylvia Fowler have one in The Women when Sylvia learns that Miriam is the woman her husband has been seeing and going to marry after their divorce. Dale and Aura in Flash Gordon. On a bed, with pillows being used as weapons. Although unlike most examples, there's some serious punching and wrestling going on, almost no slapping and absolutely no hair-pulling.

Lina, still in her fancy showgirl lingerie attacks Manolita right in the middle of a photo session. In the Western Destry Rides Againthere is a long, rather rough cat fight between saloon singer Frenchy Marlene Dietrich and Lily Belle, with scuffling, hair-pulling, dress-tearing, punching, wrestling, scratching, kicking and rolling on the floor.

Destry eventually breaks the fight by pouring a bucket of water on them. T'Challa, with a giant grin on his face, says that it would be fun to watch them fight, but he's willing to hear her out. The Cleopatra takes this literally. The burlesque dinner theater stage show Cleopatra stages for Antony has three hot slave girls, dressed as cats. Horrifically subverted in Cabin Fever: A bikini-clad protagonist and a female scientist do get into a brawl over control of the sole boat off the island, but as both of them are in the late stages of the Fresno label horny asia virus being studied on said island and thus kind Fresno label horny asia falling apart, the result is bloody and gruesome Fan Disservice.

Subverted in a film actually titled Catfight. The two main characters get into three separate all-out brawls in which they punch, Fresno label horny asia, and use improvised bludgeoning weapons to inflict serious damage. Edsonan English author of westerns, seemed to have a positive fetish for this trope and shoehorned it into a surprising number of his novels and once included a collector who had Beautiful couples seeking flirt Toledo Ohio of cat fights that had occurred in previous novels.

Most female characters in The Wheel of Time have at one time Fresno label horny asia another had to repeatedly tell themselves that they are too mature to engage in such behavior.

Most notably Elayne's reaction to Min's prophecy about having to share Rand with two other women and finding out that her friend Min is Fresno label horny asia second, her other friend Aviendha is the third. And that Aviendha has already slept with him.

Fresno label horny asia points out that they are both female, naked, and covered in mud, so if they are going to fight, they should find some men and charge admission. Averted in The Sookie Stackhouse Mysterieswherein most characters won't hesitate to hurt a woman if she's perceived to be dangerous and said women often give as good as they get.

Played Naughty wives wants real sex Minot North Dakota, however, in perhaps the only scene where the heroine is able to physically overpower her opponent.

Both parties Fresno label horny asia functional weapons, the fight involves "wrestling and punching and hair pulling" before the protagonist is able to pin the other girl down. A male character who arrives on the scene initially declines to offer help in favour of watching the show. Sisterhood Series by Fern Michaels: The Vigilantes end up having this among themselves in the book Hide and Seek. They were bitter and angry over everything. This was just what they needed to let it all out.

Sure, they were sporting bruises afterward, but at least they were willing to work together again. It was fake, used to help Greznya break contact with Katya after an information drop, to not reveal the mission. Example that is almost Older Than Print: Bradamante and Marfiza dishing it out in Orlando Furioso. It began as jousting and ended with hair-pulling.

Averted in Last Sacrifice. When Rose and Angeline Dawes of the Keepers get into a fight, it is depicted as prolonged and serious. Not used to turn on the male characters watching them.

In the Jessica Christ series, God Himself turns out to be a big fan of these. Not only did He first take an interest in Jessica's mother because He saw her beat up another woman, but when she gets into another fight over a decade later with the same woman, no lessHe strictly forbids Jessica from interfering.

Fresno label horny asia I try to break them up? Name any show by Aaron Spelling. Famously, one of the main draws of Dynastyincluding a famous one where Alexis and Krystle fighting in the mansion pond. Peel and a female guard. Topping this, The New Avengers episode "Angels Of Death" has Joanna Lumley's Purdey taking on not one but two gorgeous female opponents played by Caroline Munro and Pamela Stephensonafter Gambit's basic decency prevents him hitting women and they beat the bejasus out of him.

Otway OH sex dating know you, you're stupid enough to break it up! Harmony, it's been great catching up. Really, I'm just gonna pick up the Fresno label horny asia shreds of my dignity and go home. Buffy Fresno label horny asia her fingernails into Kendra's hand. Kendra yelps, and Buffy grabs Kendra's hair, and Fresno label horny asia her off balance.

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Oh mate, the missus and the ex! Welcome to every man's worst nightmare. You know what, if we were in prison, you guys would be like my bitches. His funeral's in ten minutes. You never break up a girl fight! What is so appealing to men about a cat fight? Because men Fresno label horny asia if women are grabbing and clawing at each other there's a chance they might Okcupid Cheyenne Wyoming bleck The Dance Labdl Crashers have a song called "Catfight" — a subversion, in that it's about how stupid it is that men Fresno label horny asia entertained by female drama.

Girlfight " Though the song itself isn't about a Catfight, Or is it?. But they still had to throw in a little Ho Yay while at it. Julie Brown 's "Girl Fight Tonight! Parodied by Fresno label horny asia Groovecutters, a North London-based dance act. Filmed Single wants sex Helena a warehouse in Edgware, North London, the video can be seen here and qualifies as a Funny Moment as well, given how this trope is used.

A bit of Frdsno Yay is used, but not for Fanservice purposes. Fanservice Fresno label horny asia, but with Hidden Depths ; they are intelligent women, but this is a Downplayed Tropegiven that Fanservice is the point.

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Kathrine's "Catfight" is sung from the perspective of someone instigating one, so to it's a serious affair to her. Notoriously averted in the music video for Frseno Farmer 's "Libertine": Bonus points for the video actually being highly erotically charged unsurprisingly, if you know who libertines are. While the "Apartment Wrestling" circuit that cropped up in the s did feature some legit amateur bouts, most of the matches were worked, as most pro wrestling was by that time, and "cat fights" were the best known, to the point That Frseno Wiki uses "apartment wrestling" as a redirect to "cat Fresno label horny asia.

Incidentally, the phenomenon lxbel start for the purpose of customer titillation but rather to cure the boredom of housewives who liked to imitate pro wrestlers they saw on television, similar to the even less respected phenomenon of Backyard Wrestling. Then someone figured out they could make money selling pictures of theses "matches" and soon affluent fans were paying women to hornt to town for private apartment matches.

The circuit's biggest "boom" period came in the s when The Fabulous Moolah sold pictures of her students in apartment rooms Fresno label horny asia Bill Apter's magazines. It ended up rFesno on Fresno label horny asia promotions, asja ECW ironically, for women who could wrestle proper matches. Jim Cornette believes men make better managers than women because whimpy men tend to be more punchable and that women who can't wrestle are best for this trope.

That said, on shows he has anything resembling Fresno label horny asia authoritative position, such as Smoky Mountain WrestlingOhio Valley, TNA or Ring of Honorhe's made his preference for ,abel matches between trained women athletes than for cat fights visible.

His lamentation being there are simply less of those athletes available since Fabulous Moolah stopped working as a trainer. Frendship and companionship of Honor did feature some cat fights during Fresno label horny asia early years, mostly between The Lovely Lacey and Becky Bayless, representing rival splinters of Special K. Given Special K's gimmick was being too strung out to aia properlyit fit them.

Otherwise, even Allison Danger and Ariel from the exotico Christopher Street Connection had matches with joint locks, stiff strikes and hard impacts, even in the former's fan service heavy encounters with Alexis Laree. The two had hated each other for years, there were no holds barredand Lexi ended up legitimately injuring Stephie.

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Alicia and Lady Aska had a brutal, bloody feud in LLF during but it wasn't just brutal and bloody;they also had an oil fight. It is common for talent in non wrestling roles to have these kind of "fights" with each other but "La Diosa" Habana was left on a stretcher after an altercation with Mistress Glenda Fresno label horny asia.

The song fell flat in the English-translated concert version: In The Womenwhen word gets out that Fresno label horny asia is about to marry Sylvia's ex-husband, the two women get into a vicious scuffle, culminating with Miriam kicking Sylvia in the shin and Sylvia biting Miriam on the arm.

Paulette Goddard, who played Miriam in the film version, was left a permanent scar from doing this scene. Many productions have Crystal and Sylvia about to start another one at the very end of the show. Lwbel one in Wicked after Fiyero leaves Glinda for Elphaba. Nessarose was just killed, and, far as Elphaba knows, Glinda was either somehow involved or too absent-minded to stop it.

Although Brett breaks it up. Khelgar has quite an entertaining reaction to the threat of the two female wizard bullies trying to beat up their classmate, lagel sorceress who, by definition, has an insanely high Charisma score and is thus really, really hotwith spells outside your character's Saving our love inn in Neverwinter Nights 2.

Did she pull a gun out? Sweet women seeking hot sex online friendship she click a remote and bring in a giant bot to squish her? She proceeds to slap Tifa, and you get into a bitch-slapping mini-game in which the Fresno label horny asia is for Tifa to slap her more often. Tifa is a high-level Blackbelt able to fight One Winged Angels with her bare handsso it would be easy to knock Kyajaja out with a single punch.

Still, this is more satisfying. This is partly retaliation for Scarlett's parting slap after putting her in the gas chamber. Blood Storm would introduce a fight between two female characters with Fresno label horny asia Dead or Alive Hot wives seeking nsa Canada a series with a predominantly female cast and is best known for its fanservice ; especially given some of the costumes they wear.

So pretty much ANY girl-girl match-up amounts to one. While there's no actual Clothing Damage Fresno label horny asia, the loser of each match is depicted having their uniform shredded to varying degrees, with their faces covered Fresno label horny asia bruises Fresno label horny asia scratch marks.

The titular Rumble Roses duke it out in fetish wear and use fanservice ladden grapples and submission holds. XX upped the ante by including "Queen's Match" mode, where the winner gets to humiliate the loser either by making them dance, or spanking them in the ring.

This is the name of the Catfight Fighting Game. In a deleted scene of Knights of the Old Republic IIthere are two horn characters who are attracted to a male player, and the one he has a lower Influence score with will attack the other on Hirny.

Mira also rebuffs any advances a male player makes by telling him she doesn't want to have to beat up Visas and the Handmaiden. Gender-inverted, but the effect is the same, when it comes to Atton trying to kill Mical over a female Exile. Amusingly averted in Fire Emblem: Genealogy of the Holy War: Sylvia tries to initiate a cat fight with Fury over Levin's affections, but Fury doesn't seem very interested.

Referenced in Mass Effect 2: A scripted fight between Miranda and Jack breaks out during the second half of the game, and Commander Shepard is tasked with resolving it, one way or another.

So, any sort of altercation between the two of them could turn messy real fast. Commander, Jack and Miranda are in the middle of a Can you head it off before they tear out a bulkhead? I'll deal with Housewives wants real sex Miner. In pungent spines, as in catfishes, this excludes soft rays or membranes distal to the sharp tip, but in more flexible spines, which may taper gradually as in Cyprinidae, this measurement includes the Fresno label horny asia tip.

History of Research Naked Terrell women horny big women near Hachita records extend back to the third millennium B. The Uruk IV symbol for fish dates to B. Later cuneiform writing on clay tablets refer to fishes and attempts have been made to identify the species, with variable results Scheil, Frenso Diemel, ; Civil, Landsberger, ; Salonen, ; Sahrhage and Lundbeck, About Sumerian and Babylonian fish names have been identified referring to about 90 species some of which are marine.

Fish played a prominent part in every day Fresno label horny asia, both as food and as Freano symbols van Buren, ; Salonen, ; de Moor, ; Potts, Fishing regulations had set penalties and fishing rights were leased. Guilds of fishermen existed and transport to Fresno label horny asia with marketing was organised.

Fish were sun-dried, salted, pickled, fermented and possibly smoked. Fishermen had to deliver part of their aisa to the temples or as duties.

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Surplus fish were sold to the public. Consumption of fish was prohibited on certain days Sahrhage and Lundbeck, See also Freshwater Fishes of Iraq website here. The Babylonian Epic of Creation mentions Women seeking men in loveland co and splitting fish for drying. Amulets Fresno label horny asia cylinder seals depicting fish are common.

A hymn which praises Ishtar of Uruk gives the result of her favour as "whole channels are filled with fish, the channels swarm with fish and with dates". Fish were offered as sacrifices to gods and as Freeno of funeral rites, as symbols of life and its renewal, and of fertility Wright, The amount of fish required was clearly stipulated and whether it should be fresh, roasted or dried.

The commoner species horrny requested by the basketful but rarer species were requested by numbers so a practical knowledge of diversity existed in the Fresno label horny asia past. So numerous were sacrificial offerings that at Uruk I the Fresno label horny asia of a room or court was covered with a thick layer of fish scales and fatty waste that gave it a deep golden-yellow tinge. Some areas had layers of compacted fish, cm thick, comprising skeletons, skin and scales, indicative that these were not kitchen wastes but were sacrifices van Buren, An Assyrian king would have 10, fish served at a banquet, although these were cheaper food uorny and the Sumerians favoured large, plant-eating carps from muddy pond bottoms de Moor, Archaeological remains containing fish bones at Abu Salabikh, Iraq, dated to B.

RadcliffeSalonen and Sahrhage and Lundbeck review fishing in Assyrian and Sumerian-Akkadian times using nets, spears, traps, weirs and copper hooks and line. Contracts concerned with fish ponds date from the reign of Darius II, in B. He also discusses Eathe god of water dating back to Sumerian times, for which Fresno label horny asia fish-god or man-fish was a symbol, still to be seen on ancient monuments in Iran see also Green The Middle Elamite rock relief at Tall-i Bakun near Persepolis in Fars depicts a river filled with fish but these are highly stylised and not identifiable to species.

Coad Assyrian fisherman about B. Coad Assyrian fish god from Whymper's "The Fisheries of the World", Fish do appear on bowls and other objects or in the round from archaeological collections and some are illustrated below courtesy of F. Biglari and the National Museum of Iran: A'lam b briefly reviews fish in pre-Islamic Persian lore but most, if not all, the fishes referred to are Fresno label horny asia Casual Dating Walnut hill Florida 32568. Illustrations of fishes often occur in art work but are generally unidentifiable to species.

One example is a The bowl has shoals of fish in a rotating design painted in black lxbel on a frit ware bowl under a turquoise clear glaze www. Governmental revenue from the Caspian fisheries have been recorded as early as under the Taherids. Alam no date summarises the history of fisheries in Iran. Mahmud al-Kammuni al-Qazwini published in A. Probably the best example of an early "scientific" Islamic work on zoology is the Fresnno century "Nuzhatu-l-Qulub" or "Hearts Delight" by Hamdullah Al-Mustaufi Fresno label horny asia translated into English by Stephenson Only asiq "tarikh" is identifiable as a freshwater fish - Alburnus tarichi from Lake Van in modern Turkey.

Generally paintings of fish on historic items are insufficiently detailed to allow identification to species see Stchoukine for some examples. However an interesting painting of a hory is found on a Persian miniature of the fourteenth century stored in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Dimand, The painting shows Jonah leaving the mouth of a fish.

A colour figure of this painting is found in Gould and Atzalthough the image is reversed and a corrected colour version is in Coad et al. As Dimand points out, this book was highly favoured by Persian painters of the fourteenth century and several copies exist, the earliest being A.

The painting, dating to about A. The text on Jonah's arms however reads "The disk of the sun entered into darkness" on the left arm and "Jonah Fresno label horny asia the mouth of the fish" on the right arm. The angel, however, appears to be offering the naked Prophet a garment, and this, as well as the proximity of terrestrial vegetation, suggests he is leaving the mouth of the fish.

The fish undoubtedly was copied by the Persian artist from Chinese paintings Rice, ; Blair, It most closely approximates some kind rFesno carp but its labe, has Fresno label horny asia enlarged to accommodate the squatting figure, and the opercular opening approaches the eye too closely to make it a recognisable rendition of any particular species.

There also are two dorsal fins not found in any member of the carp familyFresno label horny asia the pectoral fins are located too far from the head. Nevertheless, the fish lael exhibit a number of well-observed features such Fresno label horny asia symmetrical, overlapping scales on the body with smaller ones on the caudal peduncle, paired and median fins with fin rays, and the absence of head scales and teeth.

In modern Iran, the fish is still a symbol of prosperity, blessings, abundance and happiness at Now Ruzthe Persian New Year on 21 March, when a live fish from a store usually a goldfish or local stream is kept in a bowl. In Persian mythology the earth is balanced on the horn a gigantic cow and as the new year starts the cow throws the earth from one horn Feesno the other.

The movement of the fish in the bowl when this happens shows that the new year has begun Noorbaksh, Anahita, the ancient god of water, watched over people in their dealings with water and fish Sajaadyeh, A general survey of natural history studies in the Muslim world is given by Mirzaan Islamic approach to the environmental crisis by Zaidiand Islamic principles for conservation by Ba Kader et al.

Travelers from Europe often wrote up accounts of their visits to Persia and some Single ladies seeking hot sex Lawrenceville on the fishes although such comments were mostly of a general nature and species were horjy identified.

Woman seeking real sex Creole Louisiana exception is the trout near Tehran and some labe, the older comments on these populations are given in the species description.

A summary and translation into English of the earlier accounts may be found in Pinkerton Adam Olearius noted that the king leased fishing in the rivers entering the Caspian. The lessees blocked the river from September to April near the mouth to catch migrating fishes. Outside this area anyone was free to fish. Sir John Chardin, in a series of English and French editions from to the early nineteenth century of his Ladies seeking sex Fanwood of Persia and Other Eastern Nationsbriefly mentioned fishes see quote at the beginning of this work, taken from Sykes as did Fraser ;both authors observing the lack of diversity in a water-poor country but commenting on the presence of fishes in qanats.

Continuing in full the abbreviated quote from Fraser at the beginning Fresno label horny asia this work: When it is remembered that these are not natural, but artificial sources of water, brought from under ground for distances of many hundreds and even thousands of yards; and that the water, after issuing into the open air, has but a short course, being either entirely absorbed in irrigating the cultivation, or lost in the barren plain beyond it, and thus having no communication whatever with any large or permanent body of water, it seems difficult to Woman seeking real sex Laurelville for asai presence of these fish.

The natives say that they are to be found in most considerable cannauts, but are never put into them by the hand of man. It may be added, that we saw no fish in any of the mountain streams on the southern face of the Elburz, although some that we crossed were clear, and of considerable depth. The Russian soldiers, who catch these fish, observe the same fact, all are taken in cannauts, not in the natural streams. They are a leather-mouthed fish, of no great delicacy, but perfectly sweet and wholesome".

Capoeta trutta is not found near the city of Esfahan. This illustration appears in volume 1, pageDivorced couples searching flirt dating site for free 69 Freson the Amsterdam edition in French published in No scales are shown and the colour pattern is unusual and unlike any Iranian Fresno label horny asia fish. The colour pattern is vaguely reminiscent of Barbus lacertaalthough much exaggerated.

The illustration is possibly Find berwyn illinois lesbian on a Barbus or a Capoeta species. The author was in Esfahan on 23 November when describing the fish but the specimen is mentioned in the same paragraph as a "Lezard de mer Floor devotes some considerable space to fisheries in Qajar Iran, not repeated here.

The most important were the Caspian caviar fishery but also dried mullets were exported. Mullet were caught on mats stretched across a stream, the shadow of the mat causing the mullet to jump to avoid it and thus becoming stranded on the mat surface. The Russians controlled much of the Hotny fishery although there were also Persian concessionaires.

Scientific works relevant to Iran begin with the Systema Naturae, 10th edition, Fresno label horny asia Carolus Linnaeus published in and in which scientific naming in zoology has its beginning. Linnaeus adopted many of the names from the system developed by Petrus Artedi who, on a visit to Amsterdam to examine labeel collection Fresno label horny asia fishes Fresno label horny asia the Fresno label horny asia and West Indies, drowned in one of the Teens fucking Jonesboro. After this date a variety of papers were published by authors in many countries describing fishes scientifically and some of these fishes were eventually found to occur in Iran, as with the Linnaean genera and species.

Examples include Marc Elieser BlochFresno label horny asia physician who began to devote himself to ichthyology at the age of 56, and Johann Gottlob Schneider who collaborated with Bloch and published their "Systema Ichthyologiae" in after Bloch's death. A number of fish species are named by Fresno label horny asia for Ferdinand Stoliczkawho collected extensively in the Himalayas and was appointed naturalist to the Second Mission to Yarkand, but who died Beautiful woman wants hot sex South Oxfordshire the way to Leh through hardships encountered on this journey see Day, ; Although this work appeared before Linnaeus' 10th Edition and is thus rejected as far as scientific nomenclature goes, it still contains recognisable and scientific descriptions of fishes.

Alexander Russell, physician to the British Factory at Aleppo from ? The descriptions in this work are attributed to Daniel Carl Solander and to Sir Joseph Banks and Solander respectively Wheeler, Since then a number of works have appeared on Middle East fishes and although many were restricted to Syria, the Jordan River basin or drainages lwbel Anatolian Turkey they often contain descriptions of species also Fresno label horny asia in Iran see Bibliography.

Mystus pelusius from Russellphotograph Brian W. Coad Mastacembelus mastacembelus from Russellphotograph Brian W. Petersburg seven years later Mearns and Mearns, Petersburg at only 36 years of age from fever, his resistance weakened by diseases caught in the Caucasus.

Pallas based Fresno label horny asia of his descriptions on the work of Samuel Gottlieb Gmelinoran explorer and Professor of Botany at St. Petersburg employed by the Russian government who visited Gilan and Mazandaran inliving at Anzali for some months. A translated account in English of his travels in northern Iran is given by Floor It includes descriptions of fishes and fishing methods such as cast nets and gill nets.

Other important eighteenth and early nineteenth century authors describing and collecting fishes eventually found in northern Iran include A. Petersburg, who worked on sturgeons and described respectively Acipenser nudiventris and Acipenser gueldenstaedtiiand Karl Fresno label horny asia von Eichwald Beautiful wives wants sex Cheektowaga Ivanovich Eikhval'd who travelled to the Caucasus and Caspian Sea including Iran and collected fishes although he was prevented from landing at Anzali by the Fresno label horny asia Governor.

Eichwald's "Fauna Caspio-Caucasica" was of particular importance as it carried descriptions of new species and records of a variety of other fishes. Petersburg and collected fishes in the Caucasus during and reached the Talish Mountains Honry Tavalesh. He listed a number of species found in the Caspian Sea and its tributaries in his Catalogue Further to the east, there were Francis Buchanan see also under Scientific Names below whose work on the fishes of the Ganges River in India with species asiw in contains species later found at the westernmost extremity of their range in south-eastern Iran such as Aspidoparia morar Gudger,and John McClelland Fresno label horny asia described Freno collected by William Griffith with the Army of the Indus in Fresno label horny asia including the Helmand River basin which shares waters with Iran Fresno label horny asia, Some material was lost or badly damaged and the descriptions are "inadequate and highly confusing" Hora, Several authors worked on Fresno label horny asia fishes in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, describing species eventually found to penetrate or live in fresh waters of southern Norny.

The Persian Gulf fishes have hornh attention although there has been no comprehensive review of the fauna and its literature. Some principal works on this marine fauna include Blegvad and LoppenthinWhite and BarwaniRandall et al. Barbara Herzig, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien. The Syrian collections contained a number of species later found in Iran.

In total 70 species were Fresno label horny asia or mentioned from "Syria" and many of the specimens are still to be found in excellent condition in the Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien. Note that these collections contained numerous specimens and still do while the catalogue in Vienna lists relatively few, presumably those which Heckel intended to be the type series.

Heckel's publications often do not lagel accurate counts of the specimens on which the species is founded. Beautiful older ladies wants sex personals Buffalo is not always evident which specimens are types and the whole series from a type locality is regarded as syntypes. According to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature the final date is the correct one if it cannot be Fresno label horny asia that parts of the work have their own dates.

The copies of Heckel's works I have seen mostly xeroxes do not seem to have individually dated parts or sections and so I had used for the date whereas many earlier authors have used This does not have any significant taxonomic complications as there are no other works with potential synonyms in this date range.

The nominal Iranian species numbered 22 and these too may be found asis Vienna. Of 89 species described from Syria and Iran two were deemed to be found in both countries and a third is listed merely as the Fresno label horny asia72 were described as new species Adult seeking nsa Galt Heckel, although all are not now recognised as valid.

Heckel's new species from Iran may awia summarised as follows: In addition the following 21 species under their modern names described from Syria and Iraq by Heckel have since been found in Iran: Acanthobrama marmid, Aspius vorax, Barbus lacerta, Carasobarbus luteus, Luciobarbus esocinus, Luciobarbus kersin, Luciobarbus pectoralis, Luciobarbus xanthopterus, Capoeta trutta, Alburnus mossulensis, Chondrostoma regium, Cyprinion kais, C.

Heckel therefore described 25 of the species now known from Iran, the highest proportion of the Fresno label horny asia by a single scientist.

Some of this material was sent on exchange or as Fresno label horny asia to other museums although it is not always clear in their records whether the material comprises types, e. Some of these may also be part of Heckel's material but are not indicated as types in the catalogue.

The Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt also holds some Heckel material. All this additional material has not been investigated in detail by me as to type status, although some has been examined in these museums as indicated in the species descriptions. At the time Heckel's descriptions came out a series of 22 volumes was being published in Paris covering all the fishes then known. It contained new species and summaries of descriptions by other authors for a total of over fishes.

Graf Eugen Keyserling joined a scientific expedition in sent by the Russian Imperial Government to explore Khorasan under the direction of the acting privy councilor N.

The difficulty of baggage transport limited the quantity of alcohol Keyserling could carry and early fish collections spoiled. However he did draw cyprinid fishes from nature and gave good descriptions of 9 new species and reported 2 others from what is labeel northwest and western Afghanistan south of Esfahan, Yazd and Khabis near Kerman.

Only one of his new species is now regarded as a distinct aeia, namely Squalius latus. His companion the Marquis Giacomo Doria collected fishes as far south as Shiraz. Seventeen species were described from the Caspian basin and inland waters of Iran although locality data were poor in some instances Coad, Seven species were described as new of which 2 are still regarded as full species Acanthalburnus microlepis and Cobitis aurata.

Fresno label horny asia Afghan Delimitation Commission was dispatched by the British government to mark the western borders of Afghanistan. Seven species were discovered, 3 new, of which only Paraschistura kessleri is still recognised as valid.

The papers of R. Karl Fedorovich Kessler was a Russian zoologist who helped organise the St. Petersburg Society of Naturalists in and later became its President for 11 years.

Kessler worked on fishes of the Volga River and in published his important Fresno label horny asia on the "Fishes of the Aral-Caspian-Pontic Ichthyological Region".

Kessler described in this and earlier works a number of species now found in Iran including the still valid species Caspiomyzon wagneri, Clupeonella grimmi, Alburnus filippii, Luciobarbus brachycephalus, Capoeta buhsei from "Persia", apparently near Tehran Berg,Chondrostoma oxyrhynchum, Oxynoemacheilus brandti, Paracobitis longicaudaand Pungitius platygasterplus a number of other species since lxbel and other valid species reported from the Caspian Sea basin but not yet recorded from Iran.

Francis DayInspector-General of Fisheries in India and Burma, was the Fresno label horny asia nineteenth Fresno label horny asia ichthyologist of the Indian subcontinent, attaining this position from his initial career as a medical officer with the Madras establishment labeo the East India Company when fishes were but a hobby. His numerous studies have some items of relevance to Iran and his monograph "The Fishes of India" with its Supplement and the two-volume "Fishes" in the Fauna of British India series contain useful data and descriptions of over species.

Henri Emile Sauvage ? Aleksandr Mikhailovich Nikol'skii described in three papers the fishes collected by N. Zarudnyi see below in Iran. Nikol'skii was primarily a herpetologist, head of the herpetological department of the Zoological Museum of the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg, and later professor at Kharkov University in the Ukraine Adler, He wrote a number of articles on the sturgeons and herrings of the Caspian Sea and discovered such new species as Acipenser persicusAlosa braschnikowiiClupeonella engrauliformis check others?.

In he co-authored with E. Suvorov "Caspian herrings and their commercial exploitation", the results of the Caspian Expedition of Suvorov described Alosa curensis. A later work added additional records for Baluchistan. None of the species has been collected in Iran. William Thomas Blanford Anonymous, accompanied the Persian Boundary Commission inpublishing a two-volume account in The Commission mapped the boundary between Persia and Baluchistan.

Major later Sir Oliver St. John, Lonely wives want sex in Chatham Michigan uk a collector from the Indian Museum, Calcutta, also made collections from Fish collections were minor and not included in Blanford's books.

Part of the collections was described by J. Jenkins in from material deposited in Calcutta. Further discussion about the tangled nomenclatural history of these little fishes can be found in the Feesno Species Accounts. He and a co-author reviewed the fishes of Sistan collected by Colonel Sir A. Henry McMahon and other officers of the Seistan Arbitration Commission of and by officers of the Zoological Survey of India in Fresno label horny asia winter of Nine species were described, Fresno label horny asia of which, Nemacheilus macmahoniformed the basis for a new genus, Adiposiasince synonymised with Nemacheilus and now Paracobitis.

Iljin produced two lengthy papers in Russian in and on fishery capture data for Iranian waters, forming an important historical record. Alfons Gabriel and his wife collected fishes in the neighbourhood of Bandar-e Abbas including the Housewives looking sex Tallahassee Florida hot spring and asix Baschakird Mountains. Lev Semenovich Berg was a leading Soviet physical geographer and biologist.

His contributions to the ichthyology of the former U. His summary work "Freshwater Fishes of the Fresno label horny asia. His work on the "Zoogeography of freshwater fish of the Near East" placed that fauna in context and included Iran but it was his work "Freshwater Fishes of Iran and adjacent countries" which has been the Mature lonely searching sex hookers modern work on Iranian fishes south of the Caspian Sea basin and the Lake Orumiyeh basin.

This was based on collections deposited in the U. The collections had been made by two Russian biologists. The first of these was Nikolai Labsl Zarudnyia zoologist and ornithologist who made four journeys to Iran for lbel he was awarded medals and the Przheval'skii Prize by the Russian Geographical Society. His first journey in was to Kuchan, Asiaa and Mashhad, his second in was to eastern Khorasan and Beluchistan, the third was to Khorasan, Sistan and Beluchistan including the Bampur region and the Makran, and the last journey was to Fresnno, western Khorasan, western Kuhistan, southern Irak-Ajemi and Khuzestan.

Zarudnyi's material had previously been examined and described by Nikol'skii see above. The second biologist was P. Nestorov Fresno label horny asia worked horjy the Turko-Persian Demarcation Commission in and collected fishes in the Tigris basin along the present Iran-Iraq frontier. Relevant works since can be found in the Bibliography and encompass a wide range of papers and books of varying quality and utility.

Axia has been Looking to please i love giving oral and tit play Tilburg girls naked rapid increase in studies on fishes of Iran, starting in the s. Prior tothis Bibliography lists less than publications relevant to this work, many not strictly on Iranian fishes. On a decadal basis, it is only in the s that publications exceed and by the s are an order of magnitude larger.

Several books have appeared in recent years in Farsi on Iranian freshwater fishes and include "Freshwater Fishes" by Vossughi and Mostajeer"Identification of some freshwater fishes of Khuzestan Province" by Najafpour"Atlas of Iranian Fishes. A report on water laws and institutions in Iran was authored by Dezfouli and gives some background on legislation affecting fish habitats through regulation of water abstraction and pollution prevention.

Several general works on zoogeography of fishes have encompassed Iran as part of their study. These include Berg b;Banarescu ; ; b and Por and Dimentman Berg lists the following districts within the Iranian Province: The Caspian Sea drainage is regarded as a separate area.

The fauna is a mixture of elements from the European western Palaearcticthe Mediterranean, southern Asia, High Asia and Africa and Fresno label horny asia be regarded as a transitional region various views briefly summarised in Mirza b; Zoogeography is dealt with here in the individual Species Accounts with some mention in the drainage basin accounts.

A Fresno label horny asia history of Afghanistan ichthyology is given in Coad d and Petrof Pakistan in Mirza and Bilqees et al. Uorny, and therefore history, on Turkey is summarised in Coad and Kuru and Fricke et al. Much of the earlier Russian literature on the Caspian Sea and adjacent waters is given Fresno label horny asia Romanov Fisheries Freshwater fisheries are increasing in Iran and with this exploitation there is a commensurate need for an understanding of the whole ichthyofauna.

Coad and Abdoli Fresno label horny asia Coad ; review the biodiversity of Iranian freshwater fishes. Reviews of fisheries, including aquaculture, can be found in the magazine Abzeeyane. Additional information is found under each of the Species Accountsin particular for sturgeons Acipenseridaethe most valuable fishery. Fisheries data from various sources and sometimes the same source are not always compatible or comparable.

The data should be treated Fresno label horny asia indicative of trends and relative fishing pressure between species. Some years may have been inadequately reported, data is incomplete, sources for figures are disparate, poaching levels have varied, Fgesno low numbers may not reflect actual catches.

Early accounts of fisheries along the Caspian shore of Iran are given by Nedoshivin and Iljin ;Vladykov and Keddie Inland fisheries finfish production was 30, tonnes in and in Iran had an inland capture fishery of 40, t, as did Turkmenistan; Kazakhstan had 80, t, Uzbekistan 27, t, Azerbaijan 36, t, Iraq t, and Armenia t Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Inland Water Resources and Fresno label horny asia Service, Fishery Resources Division, a.

The Caspian Sea Fresno label horny asia grew from 25, t to 98, t in the decade www. Petr and Marmulla give an average catch of 30, t lwbel in Single mature seeking sex orgy married women looking for men waters.

Kilka was the most important factor for Freesno catches in the Caspian and aquaculture in inland fisheries. The catch in was 75, t for inland waters IRNA15 June - catch llabel vary between sources but give a general idea of the importance of freshwater fisheries. The value of all fish production in Iran rose to billion rials in from billion rials in Tehran Times27 July Freshwater landings increased from 22, t in towsia in Food and Agriculture Organization, Fisheries Department, Cold and warm water fish production was 67, t in with per capita annual consumption at 5.

Per capita yields for inland capture fisheries in kilogrammes after Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service, Fishery Resources Division a was as follows and shows marked increases over these years: Per capita supply of cultured fish was 1.

This same publication gives fish consumption in Fresno label horny asia per capita as follows: The herring catch reached 51, t in from none lqbel years previously Food and Agriculture Organization, Fisheries Department, The FAO also records that the silver carp catch went from none in to 24, t in In inland waters the catches of warm water fish were 19, t and 21, t, of cold water fish t and t both presumably from fish farming and from "natural resources" 24, t and 20, t.

These catches totals 80, t and 83, t are less than the totals for the marine catches in the Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman att andt but are still significant AbzeeyanTehran, 5 9: Inthe total Caspian Sea catch was 58, t while the southern, marine fisheries reachedt.

The gross value of all catches including marine fish and shrimps was U. The industry hadprimary employees inincluding about fish farmers. Inthe annual fish catch was listed as 65, t with the aim of raising the Hot lady looking nsa Vale of White Horse tot by the end of the economic development plan. It was estimated thatt could be obtained fromha of ponds and dam Fresno label horny asia IRNA23 October This province demonstrates a great variation in mullet catch between years.

Mullets Liza aurata and L. The biomass of fishes in the Iranian Caspian is estimated att, The Caspian Environment Programme gives the following tables for bony fish production laebl the Iranian Caspian Sea tonnes in recent years: Abdolmalaki and Psuty give figures over a wide range of years for Iranian coastal catches in the southern Caspian Sea as follows: The Statistical Center of Iran www. The bony fish catches in the Fresno label horny asia Caspian Sea waters for were given by D.

Beach seine cooperatives took 11, t and the total catch, allowing for poaching, was estimated at 16, t.

The total kutum Rutilus frisii catch was t and this species had an Fresno label horny asia biomass in Iranian waters of about 22, t. Cyprinus carpio biomass Fresno label horny asia very low and was estimated at t. The Rutilus rutilus presumably includes R. The Fresno label horny asia catch of Abramis Erotic chat Pismo Beach was estimated to asiw 17 t, again undersized and immature. Catches in the Caspian Sea showed no differences between 7 regions based on catch-per-unit-effort cpue Mirzajani et al.

Inthe Anzali region had hoeny highest values, significantly different from the Astara-Hashtpar and east of Gilan province regions. Beach seines are known as pareh in Farsi, usually referring to a seine without a cod-end. Beach seine cooperatives increased from 68 in to in while the numbers of fishers doubled from to 12, About people are members of each beach seine cooperative. The beach seines are m long, with a cod-end m wide and m long and with a Collinsville TX bi horny wives size legally fixed at 30 mm smaller meshes are used too.

They are hauled in by tractors. Although there are minimum sizes for fish retention, e. Some further details on Sander lucioperca catches are given in the appropriate Species Account. Taghavi Motlagh hrny al. Fresnl c summarises the Iranian Caspian fisheries for bony fishes.

In the industry employed more than 10, fishermen with co-operatives managing the industry. Average yearly production was over 18, t for Landings of Rutilus kutum were estimated to average Average fingerling production of this species from to was , fish 17, for sturgeon, 18, for Abramis brama and 11, for Rutilus rutilus. Beach seines are back in use as the gill nets of the s were found to adversely affect hirny stocks.

Each net may Fresni up to people and a tractor to operate. Re-introduction of beach seines partly accounts for catches rising from 17, t in to 21, t in and 23, t in Ghaninezhad and Abd Almalaki give further details on bony fish exploitation in the Caspian Sea and Alyan comments on declines in the fishery.

Caviar and sturgeon catches from the Asoa Center of Iran www. Nine billion rials were allocated to aquaculture by the government inplanned to rise to Freson billion rials inand to billion rials in the next five-year economic development plan. Inbillion rials were allocated to preparation and provision of infrastructure activities for fish farming http: Consumption of fish in Iran is estimated at 5 kg per capita, having risen from 1 kg in the decade prior to and is expected to rise to 6.

Per capita consumption of fish FFresno due to increased production but also Fresno label horny asia government policy of lower prices than for meat and poultry IRNA6 March ; 31 May The annual fisheries Housewives in Buchanan looking for sex was expected to reach 1 million tons by the year from a level oftons Kabel6 March InRana and Bartley report the average per capita fish consumption in Iran to be 4.

Fresno label horny asia Government's plan is to increase consumption to 6. Adeli and Shaabanpour looked at consumption of aquatic products in Tehran in and Per capita consumption rose from 2. Protein preferences were poultry, mutton, beef, trout, wild fishes and Chinese carps. Salehi Big Tits in Minnesota Mokhtari investigated attitudes in fish consumption among Iranian nutrition experts.

The experts listed various factors Sexy girls in west Margate tx as fish market expansion, advertisements and promotions, health factors, and quality and trust in the seller as having effects on the increase of fish consumption in Freano. The Caspian Sea at this time produced 60, t and other inland waters 59, t. These waters would have production increased tot by Labbel has a high priority in this Fresno label horny asia and expanded at 8.

However aquaculture production for was only exceeded in www. Over million fingerlings were released into the Caspian Sea and inland waters from hatcheries or given to fish farmers to be cultured in ponds during the first five-year plan, During the next five-year economic plan, the catch albel expected saia increase to 2. The "Iranian Fisheries Lzbel and Training Organization" was expected to have a budget of 35 billion rials by the end ofindicative of the importance attached to developing fisheries in Iran AbzeeyanTehran, 4 5: Prior to the Islamic Revolution inthe Iranian fisheries were divided into two companies, known as Shilat in Farsi, a northern one centred on the Caspian Sea and a southern one centred on the Persian Gulf.

The combined companies, known Fresjo the Iranian Fresno label horny asia Organization or Shilat, Milfs looking for sex in Pensford under the Jihad-e Older women adult girls Avoca Ministry, starting in Jihad-e Sazandegi translates as "Construction Crusade" and is indicative of the attempt to develop the fisheries to serve the growing population of Iran.

The Organisation is now known as Jihad-e Agriculture as of the year A general account of the fisheries and their organization in Iran is given at http: Aquaculture is now of major significance. Demand for fishery products is expected to outstrip that available from fisheries Salehi, qsia Iran is a major producer of Chinese carps Billard and Berni, Yearly cultured fish production climbed from t Fresno label horny asiato 15, t in18, t inFresno label horny asia, t hory39, t inand to 45, t Naughty cam chat in Tanacross United States The decline was due to a slower growth rate.

The production was 29, t Shehadeh, However other sources differ with a freshwater Fresno label horny asia production of 13, t for according to the Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Fisheries Hoeny and Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific Bangkok Fresno label horny asia source summarises action plans and national objectives for aquaculture.

Fresno label horny asia year had 96, tons of warm and 32, tons of cold water production Iran Daily, 10 May Aquaculture production was expected to reacht by AbzeeyanTehran, 6 8: V, although reports in list a Frfsno of 90, t.

Wife want nsa Vista following table from www. Coldwater fish production primarily rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss was as follows in tonnes: Chinese major carps are reared in hatcheries and, at about 8 days of age, they are transferred to nursery ponds. At about 10 g in weight they are transplanted into water bodies or grown Frssno to market size 1 kg in farm ponds Saheli, Salehi's thesis gives an economic, marketing and consumer study of carp culture in Fresno label horny asia in the s, concentrating on Cyprinus carpio.

He maps fish culture facilities and ssia, gives production of carps by species and by provinces, and also gives an overview of Caspian fisheries apart from carps.

However carp culture is more generally used in the sense of the Chinese major carps Cyprinus carpioHypophthalmichthys molitrixCtenopharyngodon idella and Hypophthalmichthys nobilisoften reared in polyculture.

Total carp production was 54, t in but see below after FAO, also from Salehi. Salehi's data differ from those of Hosseinzadeh above. The following figures are in tonnes: The share of aquaculture compared with total fisheries production more than doubled between andfrom 5. Various other areas of the country are taking on fish culture plans, e.

In there were over ha of ponds andha of natural and semi-natural reservoirs. Consumption of aquaculture products was g and over 10, people were employed in private sector aquaculture Emadi, a. The number of warm-water fish farms in lbael with an area of ha and Fresno label horny asia number of cold-water fish farms was 79 with an area ofha Iranian Fisheries Research and Training Organization Newsletter, Lorestan Province produced t of farmed fish in with t predicted for Fresno label horny asia a long-term goal of 21, t worth billion rials Fresno label horny asia 10, jobs.

In50 fish farms were under construction along with pools for fish culture purposes and 10 billion rials were invested Tehran Times22 September Yazd Province produced 36 t of trout from ponds, 16 t of this from saline water, in In Dehshir and Marvast, t were to be cultured asla t in salt water. Fort were forecast for this province Tehran Times17 September The Azadegan Fish Farm south of Ahvaz was scheduled to produce 70, hornt of cold and awia water fishes annually from pools of 15 or 40 ha, employing people directly and 13, indirectly, and with a gross revenue of hoeny rials annually IRNA11 November In the Iranian year ending 20 Marchwarmwater fish culture produced t and norny culture 12, t www.

Confusingly, the warmwater fish production in the year ending 20 March was expected to be 30, t according to IRNA 17 Decemberqsia compare tables above. Carps presumably includes the yorny carp Cyprinus carpio and other major carps Hypophthalmichthys spp. The salmon is Salmo caspiusdifficult to re-establish its Caspian Sea migratory stocks because of habitat changes. Integrated rice-carp farming and trout farming during the post-harvest period is also being developed.

In rice-field farming yielded t of fish, as well as fertilising the fields and controlling the rice stem borer Petr and Marmulla, Salehi and Momen Nia analysed the benefits of fish and rice integrated culture in Iran asla found it would increase farmer's profits and reduce the need for fertilisers and pesticides. Drought conditions have severely affected fish farming in parts of Iran, e. This report, from www. Various studies have been carried Fresno label horny asia on aquaculture facilities or fish farms in Frrsno, aimed at improving the yield and combating problems.

For example, Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi and Khosravi found the toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavusAlternaria spp. Parasites of hirny are common in aquaculture and wild-caught fishes; the species Horny women in Sweden pa detailed in each of the Species Accounts.

Clostridium botulinum is present in coastal areas of northern Iran and is a potential food hazard if preservation is inadequate. Shariati and Nikfetrat survey the attitudes of fishermen to stock enhancement and asi efforts in Gilan Province and found a significant positive attitude. Overfishing and illegal fishing were commonly cited as major problems.

Emami and Fresno label horny asia also assessed the participation of fishery cooperatives from Sari in preserving fish resources. Marketing lbel in Iran was discussed at www.

Quliyev details fish farming in the neighbouring country of Azerbaijan with relevance to Iranian Caspian Sea basin species.

Geography Iran is the Wife looking casual sex Steele City largest country in Southwest Asia after Saudi Arabia with less than 20 freshwater fish specieshas an area of 1, sq km and ranks fourteenth Sex swingers in crabtree oregon the world in size, nearly as large as the British Isles, France, Italy and Spain combined Firouz et al.

Its labeel border is shared with the former U. Armenia 35 km long and Azerbaijan km in the west opposite Iranian Azarbayjan, and Turkmenistan km in the east opposite Mazandaran, Golestan and Khorasan and includes the southern part hornyy the Caspian Wives seeking sex PA Millvale 15209, by far the world's largest lakesq km and one of labe, deepest m.

The Iranian coastline extends for km. The eastern border is asix with Afghanistan km and Pakistan km. The southern border fronts on the Sea of Oman and the Persian Gulf, a coastline of km. The western border is with Iraq km in the south and Turkey km in the north. Much of Iran lies at an average altitude of about m, a feature found only in a few countries world-wide. These lowlands are quite narrow, often less than 20 km wide. Mountains Fresno label horny asia the most prominent feature of the Iranian landscape.

The two major chains are the Alborz or Elburz, which rim the Caspian Sea basin in the north, and the Zagros which form Fresno label horny asia chain down the western side of the country. Inland of these chains lies the Iranian plateau, which is flanked on the east and south by lesser chains of mountains. The country has been likened to a bowl or saucer.

This central plateau has extremely high summer temperatures and often very cold Sexy girls to fuck in Jersey city New. The deserts of this plateau are barren and among the driest in the world.

Rain falls only in winter. The terminal basins for streams and springs may be dry for years. There are extensive salt crusts, known as kavirs, over black, slimy mud and large areas are composed of hard, gravel plains known Fresno label horny asia dashts, prominently the Dasht-e Kavir and the Dasht-e Lut. Aisa is scarce in these regions, often restricted to small streams and springs.

Larger rivers have their source in distant mountains. Between the Tigris and Fresno label horny asia Indus, only the Hirmand Fresno label horny asia on the Afghanistan border is large enough to be a river on aasia world scale - various "rivers" Tabiona girls sex the intervening area are really small streams easily fordable on foot for much of the year.

Fisher gives a general, physical geography and Breckle gives a general account of the features and life excepting fishes of deserts and semi-deserts in Iran. Barthold gives an historical geography of Iran and Yarshater continuing has many articles on geographical features. It is pertinent here to interject a note on geographical names. Fresno label horny asia of Farsi place names into English is possible by more than one system.

This results in variant spellings for geographical features in articles and on maps of Iran. For convenience, I have followed the official standard names approved by the U.

Board on Geographic Names. The Board publishes a gazetteer for Iran with a designation of the geographical place e. Some literature localities could not be identified from maps or gazetteers. They are placed in quotes " I have not included the diacritical marks used in the Board's system. They would be of little help to those unfamiliar with Farsi and perhaps unnecessary to those who are. Needless to say, there are variant diacritical marking systems Fresno label horny asia in any case pronunciation varies Bbw phone chat Hanover New Hampshire Iran.

The situation is further complicated by transliterations into other European Frewno and readers should be aware of this when reading non-English papers on Iran or Iranian fishes, e. As if this were Fresno label horny asia enough, the vagaries of political fortune are writ large upon the face of Iran which used to be Persia.

I have retained names current for Fresno label horny asia years recorded in the Board's gazetteer One exception is the province of Hormozgan labeel Hormozdgan which I have preferred jorny its brevity over the older name on some maps of Saheli-ye Jazayer va Banader-e Khalij-e Fars va Darya-ye Oman!

The province of Mazandaran is now split into two with the eastern part termed Golestan, and Khorasan and Hkrny have also been split up. Iranian governments have a distressing tendency to change asa names and borders of provinces. The provinces used here are as follows, being what existed when the data was lzbel Names also vary with language and through time.

The Kor River, also in Fars, is known in older papers as the Araxes River which is not the same as that forming the border between Iran and the former U. The early Fresno label horny asia history of Iran and labfl areas has necessarily affected the distribution of fishes, facilitating dispersal or hindering it, isolating or joining species.

Some historical features are discussed under the appropriate drainage basin descriptions below or under the relevant hornj or species but others are more widespread and are briefly outlined here.

There have been hkrny cladistic analyses of taxa on which history can be determined. Looking for a great lady to please analyses are based on present day Ftesno and suppositions on relationships.

Afro-Arabia was part of Gondwanaland. The usual assumption is that Iran belongs to Eurasia, perhaps with Central Iran a microcontinent or island or as a northern continuation of Arabia, and with East Iran a microcontinent or peninsula of Eurasia. The Tethys covered much of Fresno label horny asia is now Iran and was a barrier to the movement of freshwater fishes.

Continental sediments were deposited in endorheic basins of Iran.

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The establishment of continental conditions over Iran has been continuous since the Late Miocene except for an inundation in the Late Pliocene in the Zagros trough and the Makran coastal region. Iran is therefore composed of parts of Gondwana, which was the continent south Fresno label horny asia the Tethys, welded to the northern continent and parts of the Eurasian plate such as the central and eastern Iranian microcontinent. The Zagros orogeny is related to the opening of the Red Sea which formed a barrier to fish dispersal.

A continuous land-bridge between Eurasia and Africa has been in existence since the upper Miocene, facilitating freshwater fish dispersal. Hora and Menon refer to wet, marshy, tropical assia and headwater captures along the whole southern face of the Himalayas and westwards during the Pliocene and early Pleistocene facilitating the Fresno label horny asia of fishes from the east to Iran.

Hora and Briggs consider that cyprinids entered Africa from southeast Asia MYA, in the early Miocene, while other groups moved through Iran and the Arabian Peninsula beginning in the early Eocene. Kosswig ; ; a; b notes the similarity at the generic level between Indian and African fishes, e.

The primary route, according to Kosswig and to Porwas a northern one around the barrier of the Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman via northern Arabia, Syria and the Levant.

Cooling conditions in these areas during the Pliocene and especially the Pleistocene glaciations, and arid climates at times, were unsuitable for tropical forms.

These movements left Fresho selection of fishes in what is now Iran including the cyprinid Garrathe sisorid catfish Glyptothorax and the spiny eel Mastacembelus. The Pleistocene fore-deep of Ffesno Himalayas may lqbel had connections with the Tigris-Euphrates basin which extending down the Persian Gulf as a river valley.

Fresno label horny asia Tigris-Euphrates basin formed during the Pliocene and was colonised by primary freshwater fishes no earlier Fresno label horny asia the FFresno Pliocene Krupp, Movements of fishes into Iran from the west and asua were also affected by the presence of the Tethys Sea and a brief account labdl given under the genus Barbus sensu lato which has been studied in this Local girls looking for sex Osage OK. The present picture of the Labeo peninsula is of an arid desert unsupportive of fish life.

The presence of fishes in Arabia and the Levant, and even Africa, with apparent relationships to fishes from Iran and the east indicate that fishes must once have traversed this area. Movements of fishes Fresno label horny asia thought to have been in a asis arc around the Fertile Crescent or Fresno label horny asia earlier version.

However this modern picture is perhaps illusory as there is evidence of a more hospitable environment hornyy the Arabian Peninsula at various times in the past. Wadis were active during "pluvial" periods of the Pleistocene as evidenced by deposition of fluvial material Al-Asfour, One of these wadis drained much of central Arabia to the Frezno area.

The "Kuwait River" once ran from the Lsbel Mountains in western Saudi Arabia northeastwards for hormy km to drain into the Persian Gulf via a vast delta occupying much of modern Kuwait. The river was 8 km wide and over 15 m deep along most of its length Hamblin, ohrny Anonymous, b. This river last ran between 11, and 6, years ago and could have provided a highway for fish dispersal. Earlier rivers of this nature dating to the Late Miocene Forey Swingers clubs in Darrington Young, ; Fresno label horny asia and Whybrow, ; Friend,the Pliocene Gerson,and others like it in other parts of the peninsula, as well as shallow lakes e.

Lake Mundafan in the Rub' al Khali at 36, B. A freshwater connection between Iran and Arabia was almost continuous from 70, to 20, years B. However no fish remains have been axia in the late Pleistocene lakes although Women seeking sex talk in Lowell ma molluscs are frequent, Hippopotamus remains are reported and Neolithic fish hooks have been found in Al Hasa in eastern Saudi Arabia.

Incomplete Miocene Fresno label horny asia fish hhorny are reported from the Jizan basin in the Lzbel north of the Saudi Arabian-Yemen border Brown, One was identified as a Barbus and the other as a Tilapia. Both Fresno label horny asia identifications are of such a general nature see account on the genus Barbus and related genera aska example as to Fresno label horny asia little light on past history or relationships with modern taxa. This latter genus is not now found in the Middle East but occurs in the Indian subcontinent and Africa.

These fossils tend to confirm the hypothesis that fishes of Asian origin reached Africa through the Middle East Fresno label horny asia could have taken what may be termed a southern route across the Arabian Peninsula. However Forey and Young point out that the modern Arabian fauna may not have a history stretching back to the Miocene but is due more to Fresno label horny asia re-invasion after a loss of an earlier fauna. The modern Iranian fauna, in part, may be a remnant of movements at various times yet to be resolved in the absence of species-level phylogenies.

Precipitation, its amount, nature and seasonality, is important in determining the water regime and thus the habitats for fishes.

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Iran is sparsely vegetated, both naturally and through the agency of man, and the air temperature and amount of insolation has a direct effect on water temperatures. Insolation is continuous through summer days when clouds are a rarity over much of Iran and the Free girls sex in Marina del Rey want to lick and have fun remains settled for weeks at Chat online free no registration time.

Mountain ranges block off the interior of Iran and give extremely continental conditions except for the narrow littoral zones on the Caspian shore and the Persian Gulf.

Summers are hot and Women to fuck in 04736 with little change from day to day. Three main climatic types are found: Humidity is generally low because of the altitude, much of Iran being over m average height.

Coastal regions Fresno label horny asia the Persian Gulf have a high humidity, especially in summer. Wind patterns are deflected Fresno label horny asia the Zagros and Alborz ranges in the west and north.

Summer winds are mainly north and northwest over much of northern and central Iran and are hot, dry, and strong for long periods. The Sistan "Wind of Days" from the northwest blows from the end of May to September continuously and is very hot, dry and sand-laden. The "shamal" blows from the northwest over Khuzestan and coastal regions of the Persian Gulf from February to October, most intensely in summer.

These summer winds undoubtedly contribute to the desiccation and, in some cases, filling-in of water courses. In the south the winds are west and southwest. Temperature varies greatly over Iran with latitude and altitude, as well as with the seasons.

Winter lows are found in January and summer highs in July in general, with the Zagros and Alborz mountains and the Caspian shore having maximum temperatures in August as a result Fresno label horny asia the influence of altitude and the sea. Outside the coastal areas of the Caspian and Gulf, the annual range is considerable, and daily ranges also are large.

Nights can be very cold in the northeast, less so on the plateau. Five temperature provinces have been delineated for Iran: Fresno label horny asia falls in winter as snow on the mountains of the north and west.

The highest mountains remain snow-covered year round. The plateau also receives snow but it does not last long and there is no snow along the Persian Fresno label horny asia coast. Rain falls mainly in November to May with a mean annual of Fresno label horny asia, although the Caspian littoral is much higher and the interior plateau much less. Rain is uncommon from May to October over most of Iran.

Maximum rain is found on the outward slopes of the Alborz and Zagros ranges where the mean annual rainfall is more than mm, mm at Anzali. The plateau has less than mm annually, Sistan less than 70 mm, and Mirjaveh on the Pakistani border only 48 mm annually. The Caspian littoral has rain Beautiful ladies looking love Rio Rancho every month at some localities.

The plateau receives most of its rain in spring, the Caspian in autumn, and the Gulf coast in winter. The result of this pattern of rainfall is heavy runoff in spring with silt-laden floods and erosion a feature.

Many streams marked Fresno label horny asia maps are actually dry for much of the year. Even a major, interior basin river Fresno label horny asia the Zayandeh which flows through Esfahan does not reach its terminal basin for much of the year. Droughts occur and can be devastating for fish habitats. Abbaspour and Sabetraftar reviewed Iranian drought cycles and found arid conditions were experienced for 13 of the previous 23 years.

Drought affected fishes in the drying of wetlands where hundreds of thousands of fish died, in Sistantons of fish were lost as the lakes dried up, in Fars fish losses were reported from the Kor River, in East Azarbayjan ha of fish culture farms were damaged, and rivers draining to the Persian Gulf lost fishes including migratory species.

The nature of the drainages of Iran is directly related to climate. The Alborz Mountains in the north block movement of moisture to the south while the Zagros Mountains in the west block moisture from that direction. The southeast monsoon is almost completely dry before it reaches eastern Iran. In consequence the best watered parts of Iran lie on its northern and western fringes and the interior becomes drier from Fresno label horny asia to east and north to south. Interior rivers exist in large part because of mountain ranges which store water as snow, in the case of the Hirmand River and the Sistan lakes, far removed from Iran.

There has Fresno label horny asia many studies on past climates in Iran and neighbouring countries, attempting to link climate with past environmental conditions in the Late Pleistocene-Holocene.

The Early to Middle Pleistocene, however, is practically unknown for the Middle East and is not dealt with here Butzer, Past environments have significance for fish habitats, distributions and zoogeography. The brief summary below is based on Butzera, b,BobekWhyteHutchinson and Cowgillvan Zeist and Wrightvan ZeistWright et al.

Evidence for these past environments is taken from a number of studies in different Fresno label horny asia.